A simple, office-based screening tool scale can rapidly and accurately assess dementia risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), according to a 4-year, prospective, multi-center study.
The Montreal Parkinson Risk of Dementia Scale (MoPaRDS) identified elements specific to PD and demonstrated predictive validity equal to or greater than other cognitive impairment algorithms, reported Ronald Postuma, MD, MSc, of Montreal General Hospital in Canada and colleagues in JAMA Neurology.
“With this clinical prediction tool, dementia risk in Parkinson’s patients can be calculated in a single office visit without any statistical software,” the study’s first author, Benjamin Dawson of the University of Ottawa, told MedPage Today.
Scientists have more evidence that exercise improves brain health and could be a lifesaving ingredient that prevents Alzheimer’s disease.
In particular, a new study from UT Southwestern’s O’Donnell Brain Institute suggests that the lower the fitness level, the faster the deterioration of vital nerve fibers in the brain. This deterioration results in cognitive decline, including memory issues characteristic of dementia patients.
“This research supports the hypothesis that improving people’s fitness may improve their brain health and slow down the aging process,” said Dr. Kan Ding, a neurologist from the Peter O’Donnell Jr. Brain Institute who authored the study.
In nursing homes and residential facilities around the world, health care workers are increasingly asking dementia patients questions: What are your interests? How do you want to address us? What should we do to celebrate the life of a friend who has passed away?
The questions are part of an approach to care aimed at giving people with memory loss and other cognitive problems a greater sense of control and independence. At its core is the idea that an individual with dementia should be treated as a whole person and not “just” a patient.
The Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) plans to invest $142.5 million to expand its clinical research network—another facet of a broad initiative that includes major grants supporting physical therapy research.
According to a PCORI news release, the money will be used to establish a second-phase expansion of the National Patient Centered Clinical Research Network(PCORnet), a project that links various health data research networks. The funding will be used in part to expand the number of PCORnet participants from 27 to 34, and will include both clinical data and patient-powered research networks.
The 34 PCORnet partner networks encompass more than 150 conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease and dementia, autism spectrum disorders, heart disease, obesity, Parkinson disease, behavioral health disparities among low-income populations, and health disparities among sexual and gender minorities, all drawn from a wide variety of population groups.
Christmas can be a stressful time for hosts and guests alike, and it’s more so for carers of people living with dementia.
It’s difficult to give general advice about how to get through the holiday season with as little fuss as possible because everyone is unique, and the various types and stages of dementia affect behaviour in different ways.
So I’m going to tell you a story of how one couple is getting through. Hopefully, their strategies will suggest things other families can do for a better Christmas.
Tom and Nola are not real people. Their portraits below are based on my experience working with people with dementia, and on conversations I’ve had with these people, their carers and service providers about how to cope at Christmas time.
Tom was diagnosed with dementia about three years ago.
“My memory is not so good now,” he says. But Nola, his wife and carer, says that he’s still sociable and enjoys food and company.
This has been a month of good news for two of my annoying habits.
The first is my penchant to watch sappy films from Indonesia. I lived in the country after college, and the films help me keep up my Indonesian language skills. A recent review of hundreds of dementia sufferers in India finds that dementia among speakers of multiple languages comes, on average, four years later than it does to people with dementia who are monolingual. Prior studies had found a similar phenomenon, but the new study shows that multilingualism likely postpones dementia regardless of a person’s class or formal education.
My next habit, forgive me, is singing along to musicals. A paper read this month at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in San Diego finds that when nursing home patients with Alzheimer’s disease sing along to The Sound of Music and The Wizard of Oz, they score better on measures of their cognitive abilities.
Monetary, emotional toll
The good news on dementia is a welcome tonic against some overwhelmingly frightening facts. Because we are adding, on average, at least two years to our lifespan every decade, we are all more prone to dementia. One’s chances of dementia double every five years after age 65; one of every two Americans older than 85 is afflicted with Alzheimer’s.
According to the Alzheimer’s Association, there are more than 5 million people in the US living with Alzheimer’s disease. But researchers say they have developed a new model that could improve early detection of dementia, allowing better treatment options and potentially slowing the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, MD, say the model, based on the reading of cognitive test scores, could determine whether memory loss in older adults is benign or whether it could develop into Alzheimer’s disease.
Although current methods of diagnosing dementia involve cognitive tests, the researchers note that the challenge for doctors is that the majority of normal, healthy people will have low scores in some areas.
They add that this makes it difficult to determine whether the patient has a mild form of cognitive impairment, is in the early stages of dementia, or is free of any cognitive problems.
Besides being able to navigate in two or more cultures, people who speak more than one language have a lower risk for developing earlier dementia, according to a new study published in the journal Neurology. In the study, a team of British and Indian scientists tracked nearly 650 dementia patients, taking note of when each patient was diagnosed with the condition. The researchers found that individuals who speak more than one language and who are diagnosed with dementia tend to receive their diagnosis up to five years later than those who speak only one language.
“We know from other studies that mental activity has a certain protective effect,” study author Thomas Bak, a neurologist at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland told USA Today. “Bilingualism combines a lot of different mental activities. You have to switch sounds, concepts, grammatical structures, cultural concepts. It stimulates your brain all the time.”
The research found that the correlation even extended to illiterate individuals — suggesting that the effect has nothing to do with formal education. When the team compared data for illiterate people, those who could speak more than one language were diagnosed with dementia six years later on average.
For the study, the scientists reviewed the medical records of patients who visited a clinic in the city of Hyderabad, the largest city of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The team said that selecting this location was important because residents of the city often speak two or three language – typically some combination of India’s official language, a local dialect, and English.
After being diagnosed with Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease (EOAD) at age 57, Rick Phelps was given an Exelon patch and a directive to make a follow-up appointment with his neurologist in six months.
That’s it-that’s all modern medicine could offer a man whose world had been unceremoniously upended by a terminal diagnosis.
Alzheimer’s disease has no cure, no effective treatment, and there are few resources to help families deal with the crushing effects of increasing cognitive impairment.
Fortunately for Rick, unconventional intervention would come a few months after his devastating diagnosis; in the form of a furry, four-legged savior named Sam. The spry German Shepard is a member of an elite squad of service dogs specially-trained to assist people with Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.
Unlike therapy dogs that assist blind or physically disabled individuals, these so-called “psychiatric service dogs” are patterned after police K9s-conditioned to analyze a situation and make decisions on how best to protect their human handlers.
A new study suggests that taking certain blood pressure medications may reduce the risk of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease.
When researchers at Johns Hopkins analyzed data on more than 3,000 elderly Americans, they found that people over the age of 75 with normal cognition who used diuretics, angiotensin-1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors showed a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s-related dementia by at least 50 percent.
Additionally, diuretics were associated with a 50 percent reduced risk in those with mild cognitive impairment.
Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers did not show a link to reduced risk, the scientists reported in the study, published in the journal Neurology.
“Identifying new pharmacological treatments to prevent or delay the onset of AD dementia is critical, given the dearth of effective interventions to date,” said Sevil Yasar, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of medicine in the Department of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. “Our study was able to replicate previous findings, however, we were also able to show that the beneficial effect of these blood pressure medications are maybe in addition to blood pressure control, and could help clinicians in selecting an antihypertensive medication based not only on blood pressure control, but also on additional benefits.”