Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent diseases in most developed and developing countries, and evidence suggests that psychosocial factors, especially fear-avoidance beliefs are important in predicting patients who will progress from an acute to a chronic stage, as well as failure of interventions. The goals of this CEU course are to evaluate the relationship between trunk mechanical properties and psychological features in people with recurrent LBP, determine whether balance response of LBP patients is different from healthy controls under various conditions, and find out whether body sway is related to the fear of fall in LBP individuals. Fear and psychological distress in regards to pain and disability is also discussed.
Inflammation of the synovial membrane plays an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). The goal of this CEU course is to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on joint inflammation.
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