About one in five kids are prescribed opioids after common pediatric surgeries, but a new study suggests they may do just as well with alternative pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
From 1999 to 2016, opioid-related overdoses rose by 250% among children and teens in the U.S., prompting widespread efforts to curb use of these addictive narcotic painkillers. Even though acute pain after surgery is the most common reason opioids are prescribed for kids, it’s not been clear how well this type of pain relief stacks up against other options, researchers note in JAMA Surgery.
For the current study, researchers asked caregivers of 404 kids under age 18 to log how often children took prescribed painkillers and whether the caregivers felt their pain was well controlled.
September is National Pain Awareness Month—a perfect opportunity to spread the word about the important role physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) play in the management of pain, and the unique knowledge they bring to the table.
Need a reminder of why patient access to physical therapy for pain is so crucial, or inspiration to get you thinking about your own activities during National Pain Awareness Month? Here are some standout videos—and a podcast—that do just that. All but 1 were produced by APTA.
A Journey Out of Pain and Addiction, and a PT’s Crucial Role What it’s about: In his keynote address for the 2019 APTA NEXT Conference and Exhibition, US Army Master Sergeant (Retired) Justin Minyard recounted the injuries he received during rescue attempts first at the Pentagon during the 9-11 attacks and then while on a mission in Afghanistan. But the heart of Minyard’s story is about what happened afterward: the multiple fusion and other surgeries, the intense pain, his slide into addiction, and his eventual freedom from opioids. He readily acknowledges that his recovery was thanks in large part to the work of an interprofessional team that included a dedicated physical therapist.
The plan was set: on May 21, APTA would hold a congressional briefing on the importance of increasing patient access to nonpharmacological approaches to pain treatment. The event would be highlighted by the story of Cindy Whyde and her son Elliott, who became addicted to prescription opioids, and eventually heroin, after receiving an opioid prescription to treat a high school football injury 9 years ago. Elliott’s road to recovery has not been easy.
But the briefing didn’t go as planned. Days before the Whydes were to travel to Washington, DC, Elliott relapsed into addiction and disappeared. Cindy came to the event alone, determined to do whatever she could to effect change. At the time of the event Elliott had been missing for 3 days.
“That is one of the worst fears any parent should have to go through, not knowing where their child is and what’s going on with them,” Whyde said.
Patients who underwent physical therapy soon after being diagnosed with pain in the shoulder, neck, low back or knee were approximately 7 to 16 percent less likely to use opioids in the subsequent months, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and the Duke University School of Medicine.
For patients with shoulder, back or knee pain who did use opioids, early physical therapy was associated with a 5 to 10 percent reduction in how much of the drug they used, the study found.
Amid national concern about the overuse of opioids and encouragement from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other groups to deploy alternatives when possible, the findings provide evidence that physical therapy can be a useful, nonpharmacologic approach for managing severe musculoskeletal pain.
APTA’s #ChoosePT opioid awareness campaign makes the case that opioids simply “mask” pain—but a new study in JAMA has concluded that the drugs probably don’t even do that much, at least not any more effectively than nonopioid medications. The research, which focused on individuals with chronic back pain or hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain, led authors to an unequivocal conclusion: there’s no support for opioid therapy for moderate-to-severe cases of those types of pain.
The published findings are based on a study of 240 randomized patients in the Minneapolis, Minnesota, Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system who reported chronic back pain or knee or hip OA pain, defined as daily moderate-to-severe pain for 6 months or more with no relief provided by analgesic use. Participants were divided into 2 groups: 1 that received an opioid regimen, and a second group that received nonopioid drugs.
To more closely resemble real-world treatment, researchers used a “treat-to-target” approach that stepped up the drugs as needed for participants to reach identified goals. The opioid regimen began with immediate-release morphine, hydrocodone/acetaminophen, and oxycodone, but the regimen could advance to sustained-action morphine and oxycodone, and on to transdermal fentanyl. The nonopioid approach began with acetaminophen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), but it could move on to topical analgesics and finally to drugs requiring prior authorization (such as pregabalin and duloxetine), including tramadol. All participants also were permitted to pursue nondrug treatment during the study, but researchers did not evaluate data related to those treatments.
Each year, more than 300 patients with chronic pain take part in a three-week program at the Pain Rehabilitation Center at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. Their complaints range widely, from specific problems such as intractable lower-back pain to systemic issues such as fibromyalgia. By the time patients enroll, many have tried just about everything to get their chronic pain under control. Half are taking opioids.
But in this 40-year-old program, they can’t stay on them. Participants must agree to taper off pain medications during their time at Mayo.
Still, more than 80 percent of the patients who enroll remain through the entire program, says Wesley Gilliam, the center’s clinical director. And many previous opioid users who finish the treatment report six months later that they have been able to stay off those drugs. Just as important, he adds, they have learned strategies to deal with their pain.
Authors of a new study have found that for patients with low back pain (LBP), the presence of comorbidities such as diabetes, mental health issues, and hypertension raises the risk that they’ll receive LBP care that uses more resources and veers off-course from LBP guidelines—including more prescriptions for opioids.
The study, published in the Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, analyzes commercial insurance claims data from 2007 to 2011 involving 513,980 adults with new visits for back pain. Researchers tracked LBP care-related claims for 3 years after the initial visit as well as procedure use and treatment patterns for the first 42 days after the visit, and matched these data with patients identified as having 0, 1, or 2 or more comorbidities based on ICD-9 codes. APTA member Sean Rundell, PT, DPT, PhD, was lead author of the study.
There was plenty to blame: the car wreck that broke his back. The job pouring concrete that shattered his spine a second time. The way he tore up his insides with cigarettes, booze, cocaine, and opioids.
It all amounted to this: Carl White was in pain. All the time. And nothing helped — not the multiple surgeries, nor the self-medication, not the wife and daughter who supported him and relied on him.
Then White enrolled in a pain management clinic that taught him some of his physical torment was in his head — and he could train his brain to control it. It’s a philosophy that dates back decades, to the 1970s or even earlier. It fell out of vogue when new generations of potent pain pills came on the market; they were cheaper, worked faster, felt more modern.