Researchers find physical activity in preschool years can affect future heart health

Physical activity in early childhood may have an impact on cardiovascular health later in life, according to new research from McMaster University, where scientists followed the activity levels of hundreds of preschoolers over a period of years.

They found that physical activity in children as young as three years old benefits blood vessel health, cardiovascular fitness and is key to the prevention of early risk indicators that can lead to adult heart disease.

The study, named “Health Outcomes and Physical activity in Preschoolers”, published today in the journal Pediatrics, is the first to demonstrate the benefits of physical activity on blood vessel health in preschoolers.

Full story at Medical Xpress

Final HHS Report on Pain Management Adds to Drumbeat for Better Access to Nondrug Approaches

The final report from a US Department Health and Human Services (HHS) inter-agency task force on pain management best practices is out, and its call for greater collaborative care and improved access to physical therapy comes through loud and clear. It’s a report that in many ways echoes APTA’s white paper on opioids and pain management published nearly 1 year ago.

The “Report on Pain Management Best Practices” changed little from its draft version released in January [Editor’s note: this PT in Motion News article covered the draft in depth]. Like its predecessor, the report identifies gaps and inconsistencies in pain management that can contribute to opioid misuse.

While the task force acknowledges that opioids may be appropriate when carefully prescribed in some instances, it also argues that other approaches—including “restorative therapies” furnished by physical therapists and other health care professionals—should be on equal footing with pharmacological alternatives, particularly when it comes to reimbursement and patient access.

Full story at APTA

Nerve stimulation could provide new treatment option for most common type of stroke

Research led by a UCLA scientist found that a new nerve stimulation therapy to increase blood flow could help patients with the most common type of stroke up to 24 hours after onset.

A study of 1,000 patients found evidence that the technique, called active nerve cell cluster stimulation, reduced the patients’ degree of disability three months after they suffered an acute cortical ischemic stroke, which affects the surface of the brain.

Dr. Jeffrey Saver, director of the UCLA Comprehensive Stroke Center, was the co-principal investigator of the study, which was conducted at 73 medical centers in 18 countries.

Full story at Medical Xpress

Move Forward Radio: Individuals Who Are Transgender Deserve Person-Centered Care – Just Like Everyone Else

Sometimes the journey toward better health must begin at the beginning—with an actual acknowledgement that there’s a problem, and a sense of self-worth strong enough to allow a person reach out for help. Just ask “Greg,” a transgender man who endured pelvic pain for years.

“My body was, for me, this thing that I fed, and got it in a car, and drove places, and it did the work I wanted it to do,” Greg said. “Because I spent so much of my life feeling betrayed by it, it was just this thing I didn’t want to pay attention to.”

Now available on Move Forward Radio: a conversation with Greg and Schoonover, the physical therapist (PT) who helped Greg see his body—and his connection to it—in a new way. The podcast is a must-listen for anyone seeking a better understanding of not just the challenges faced by the transgender population, but the importance of providers honoring the individual stories every patient brings to the clinic.

Full story at APTA

Study: Patients in Cardiac Rehab Are Older, Less Healthy, and Have More Diverse Needs Than Patients 20 Years Ago

The use of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has grown over time, but with that growth comes changes to patient demographics that present new challenges to providers, say researchers who studied the CR patient population in 1 health system over 2 decades. They describe today’s CR patients as older, more overweight, and having a higher prevalence of coronary risk factors than CR patients in the past, with an expanded range of reasons for receiving CR that makes the population more diverse than ever.

The study analyzed data from 5,396 patients who received CR at the University of Vermont Medical Center over a 20-year period between 1996 and 2015, taking in a host of variables, including the reason for participation in CR, the presence of comorbidities, BMI, age, sex, and medications taken. Results were published in the Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention.

Full story at APTA

Emergency treatment guidelines improve survival of people with severe head injury

A large study of more than 21,000 people finds that training emergency medical services (EMS) agencies to implement prehospital guidelines for traumatic brain injury (TBI) may help improve survival in patients with severe head trauma. The findings were published in JAMA Surgery, and the study was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), part of the National Institutes of Health.

“This demonstrates the significance of conducting studies in real-world settings and brings a strong evidence base to the guidelines,” said Patrick Bellgowan, Ph.D., program director at NINDS. “It suggests we can systematically increase the chances of saving lives of thousands of people who suffer severe traumatic brain injuries.”

Based on scores of observational studies, guidelines for prehospital management of TBI that were developed in 2000, and updated in 2007, focused on preventing low oxygen, low blood pressure, and hyperventilation in people with head injury. Collectively, the studies suggested that controlling those factors before patients arrived at the hospital could improve survival, but actual adherence to the guidelines had not been examined.

Full story at nih.gov

Hands-On Test Predicts Worsening Knee OA

Physical exam findings of patellofemoral grind may help predict which patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are likely to experience significant worsening of their disease, analysis of data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative showed.

Individuals with persistent patellofemoral grind had a greater annual loss of cartilage volume compared with those without this clinical finding (1.30% vs 0.90%, P<0.001), according to Yuanyuan Wang, MD, PhD, of Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues.

They also had twice the risk of having a total knee replacement by 6 years (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.30-3.38, P=0.002), the researchers reported online in Arthritis Care & Research.

The natural history of knee OA can vary notably among patients, and because of the increasing numbers of affected patients worldwide it has become critical to identify those who are most likely to progress, so as to better target healthcare resources.

Full story at MedPage Today

 

Time to Standardize Acute Care Rehab for Patients Poststroke, Say Researchers

Not all rehabilitation is equal for acute care hospital patients with ischemic stroke, say researchers in an article published in the May issue of PTJ (Physical Therapy). Authors found “significant variation” in the use of hospital-based rehabilitation services that “suggest a timely opportunity to standardize rehabilitation service delivery in acute settings for patients with ischemic stroke.”

While current guidelines recommend early mobilization during hospitalization for ischemic stroke, authors write, they do not “provide clear recommendations on the optimal dosage of therapy.” This, combined with no incentive for hospitals to report on functional status to the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), led researchers to examine Medicare claims data from 104,295 patients in 2010 to identify what factors were associated with the type and amount of rehabilitation services patients received while in acute care settings.

Full story at APTA

Study finds different amounts of physical therapy for stroke patients

Medicare-covered stroke patients receive vastly different amounts of physical and occupational therapy during hospital stays despite evidence that such care is strongly associated with positive health outcomes, a new study by Brown University researchers found.

The research team, led by Amit Kumar, an adjunct assistant professor at Brown’s School of Public Health, analyzed Medicare claims data from 2010 for approximately 104,000 stroke patients. They found that 15 percent of patients received no physical therapy (PT) or occupational therapy (OT), while on average stroke patients received 2 hours of therapy during their hospital stay. Some patients received almost 4 hours of therapy, but these tended to be patients with the longest hospital stays, Kumar added.

“For stroke patients, rehabilitation services are one of the most important components in providing treatment after they are stabilized in the acute setting,”said Kumar, who is also an assistant professor of physical therapy at Northern Arizona University. “This is the only treatment that helps patients regain activities for daily living, such as walking or using the restroom independently. So it’s really important to start physical therapy and occupational therapy as early as possible.”

Full story at news-medical.net

Researchers create smart fabric that aids in athletic coaching and physical therapy

A computer science research team at Dartmouth College has produced a smart fabric that can help athletes and physical therapy patients correct arm angles to optimize performance, reduce injury and accelerate recovery.

The proposed fabric-sensing system is a flexible, motion-capture textile that monitors joint rotation. The wearable is lightweight, low-cost, washable and comfortable, making it ideal for participants of all levels of sport or patients recuperating from injuries.

The study, published in Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies, will be presented later this year at the UbiComp 2019 conference in London in September.

Full story at news-medical.net